Travel & Tourism Development

Main Topics of Study:

Emergence of Sustainable Tourism

  • Status of global tourism 2004
  • Jafari’s “Platform” model
  • Institutionalisation of sustainable tourism

Issues in Sustainable Tourism

  • Flexibility
  • Status quo or enhancement?
  • Complexity of tourism systems
  • Minimalist and comprehensive composite models
  • Sustainable tourism indicators
  • Bellagio Principles
  • Pursuing sustainable tourism

Alternative Tourism

  • History of alternative tourism
  • Typology of alternative tourism products
  • Mass conventional tourism and alternative tourism ideal types
  • Deliberate and circumstantial alternative tourism
  • Farm-based tourism
  • Volunteer tourism
  • Guesthouse tourism
  • Backpacking
  • Urban alternative tourism
  • Education tourism
  • Potential problems

Conventional Mass Tourism

  • Structure of the formal tourism industry
  • Ethics
  • In situ nature of tourism consumption
  • Emergence of the “green consumer”
  • Advantages of large economies of scale

The Facilitating Sectors

  • Travel agencies
  • Specialised merchandise: guidebooks
  • Outbound tour operators
  • Transportation providers
  • Hospitality providers

Attractions

  • Role of attractions
  • Theme parks
  • Casinos
  • Ski resorts
  • Golf courses

Quality Control

  • Quality control
  • Codes of conduct
  • Ecolabels
  • Awards

Tourist Destinations

  • Destination and place
  • Destination and community
  • Broad context model of destination development scenarios
  • Destination types
  • Special events
  • Quality control and destinations

Spatial Strategies for Destinations

  • Frontstage and backstage
  • Development standards
  • Zoning and districting
  • Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) agreements
  • Trade-offs
  • Government incentives

Visitor Management Strategies for Destinations

  • Visitation caps
  • Redistribution
  • Education
  • Target marketing

Ecotourism: The Conscience of Sustainable Tourism

  • Definitions and criteria
  • Hard and soft manifestations
  • Ecotourism industry
  • Spatial distribution
  • Potential costs and benefits
  • Quality control
  • Hard and soft ecotourism within a comprehensive framework

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