Management of Travel & Tourism Operations

Main Topics of Study:

The Place

  • Inhabited places
  • What makes a place?
  • Population growth
  • Natural characteristics
  • The built environment
  • The people and the patterns of life
  • The economic situation
  • Political standards and systems
  • Historic and artistic characteristics
  • Media, entertainment and recreation
  • International links
  • Pace of change
  • Urbanisation
  • Places are unfinished

Tourist Destinations

  • A destination
  • Domestic market foundations
  • Visitors
  • Types of destination
  • Purposes of travel
  • General interest tourism
  • Special interest tourism
  • Special interest focus and purpose
  • Business and professional travel
  • VFR, health, religious and other travel
  • The destination and its three stages
  • The destination as a marketing mix

Visitors

  • An initial framework
  • Travel motivations
  • What competes?
  • Ego benefits
  • Popular culture and mass tourism
  • The tourism product includes other tourists
  • Tourism communities
  • Visitors’ interpretation
  • Not meeting, meeting or exceeding expectations
  • Visitor surveys

Product

  • From destination to tourism product
  • The total product
  • Product components
  • Diversification
  • Change
  • Space
  • The intangibles
  • Accommodation
  • Predominant features
  • Completeness
  • The marketing mix

Accommodation

  • Types of accommodation
  • Size and characteristics of units
  • The accommodation product
  • Project feasibility
  • Factors influencing a destination’s accommodation
  • Shaping a destination’s accommodation mix
  • The role of tour operators
  • A commodity
  • The hotel room as a commodity
  • The health of the hotel and accommodation sector

Transport

  • Access
  • Change
  • The travel marketing mix
  • International links
  • Road transport
  • Railways
  • Air transport
  • Marine transport and inland waterways
  • Visas and facilitating entry
  • Key transportation points

Cycles

  • Cycles in general
  • Product life cycles
  • Tourist destinations can fall away
  • Changeability
  • Proximity to major markets
  • Obsolescence
  • Staying alive

Market Research

  • The objectives of market research
  • The business climate
  • Structure and complexity
  • Desk research
  • Intelligence
  • Visitor surveys
  • The performance of the tour operators
  • Information systems
  • Disseminating information
  • Evaluating results

Image

  • The image of a destination
  • The core image
  • The brand-image
  • Ethos
  • The contemporary viewpoint
  • Setting the tone
  • Romance, familiarity and intimacy
  • Sign systems
  • Fiction and reality
  • Other ideas of reality
  • The unfinished image

Price

  • Prices and tourism receipts
  • Tourism’s economic impact
  • Leakage
  • Reducing leakage
  • Elasticity of demand
  • Price related to the image
  • Currency exchange rates
  • The Euro
  • Anti trust and monopoly controls
  • Two-tier pricing
  • Yield management
  • Key pricing criteria

Positioning

  • The importance of positioning
  • The positioning of ‘classics’
  • Formulating the marketing mix range
  • The positioning matrix

Promotion

  • Where does promotion fit in?
  • What does promotion consist of?
  • Public and private sector roles
  • Public and private sector disharmony
  • The different levels of promotion
  • Joint public and private sector approaches
  • Indirect promotion
  • The promotional budget

Governance

  • Looking at governance
  • Managing the tourism sector
  • Approaching tourism sector management
  • The role of the Government Tourism Administration (GTA)
  • Words and concepts
  • Tourism development planning
  • Consensus building
  • Involvement, participation and change

Sales

  • Forecasting
  • Selling tourism
  • Facilitation
  • The product on the travel agent’s shelf
  • The tour operator’s catalogue or brochure
  • Consumer protection
  • Reservations systems
  • The retail travel agency
  • Checking the retail network
  • Airlines
  • Selling business and convention tourism
  • The speed of sales decisions

Management Tools

  • The relationship between the public and private sectors
  • Different ways of seeing – types of approach
  • Using the tools
  • Public awareness
  • A sector-wide training programme
  • Developing the destination

Regeneration and Re-engineering

  • Cycles and positioning
  • Future development
  • Improvement opportunities
  • Modifying markets and repositioning
  • Tourism policy
  • The degree of development
  • Incentives
  • Listing the projects

Expansion

  • Planning as part of management
  • Tourism planning
  • Carrying capacity
  • Investment promotion
  • Investment workshops
  • Facilitating new investment
  • Repositioning through expansion
  • Expansion decisions

Quality and Standards

  • Quality and quality management
  • The control cycle
  • The International Standards Organisation
  • Management style
  • A question of values
  • Quality circles
  • Tangible and intangible items
  • Empowerment
  • Quality control and improvement
  • Quality management workshops and other training incentives

Legislation

  • A legislative framework
  • All sectors of society
  • Registration, licensing, classification and grading
  • Minimum standards
  • Checklist for the development of tourism regulations
  • The right of appeal
  • An ombudsperson

Physical Planning

  • The planning system
  • Different planning levels
  • Environmental impact
  • Planning regulations
  • Listed buildings
  • Outdoor advertising
  • Building regulations

Classification and Grading

  • The purposes of classification and grading systems
  • The failure of government-driven systems
  • Helping the user choose
  • Who can operate a classification and/or grading system?
  • The difference between classification and grading
  • Advisory services and training
  • The Scottish tourist board
  • Inspection
  • Private sector guides

Human Resources

  • The place of human resources development
  • A human resources development strategy
  • Working conditions
  • Future workforce and training needs
  • Minimum standards
  • Training institutions and programmes
  • A national council for tourism education and training

The Tourism Sector Checklist – Part I

  • Managing the sector
  • The checklist approach
  • The structure of the checklist
  • Description of the destination
  • Tourism policies
  • Positioning
  • The marketing mix
  • Visitors – the SWOT matrix

The Tourism Sector Checklist – Part II

  • The tourism development strategy
  • Human resources
  • The management tools
  • Organisation and management

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